Zur Aktualität von Günther Anders Die Welt als Phantom und Matrize (German Edition)

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Anton Marty 53; 4. Wozu brauchte Carl Stumpf Sachverhalte? Alexius Meinong ; 6. Von Brentaon zu Ingarden ; 7. Husserl und die transzendentale Intersubjektivitt ; Bibliographie ; Namenregister Culture, and Persons. Dziemidok, Bohdan, and McCormick, Peter, eds. Falk, Eugen. The Poetics of Roman Ingarden. Farber, Marvin. In Memory of Roman Ingarden. Fizer, John. Galewicz, Wlodzimierz. Fr Roman Ingarden Zum Amsterdam: Rodopi. Kunst Und Ontologie. Gierulanka, Danuta. Following the basic methodological principle of Husserl's phenomenology, Ingarden obtained results in all areas of his philosophy by referring directly to the "things given in experiences" corresponding to the type of object being investigated in direct intuitive cognition.

In spite of the great breadth of topics studied his results constitute a lucidly organized whole, as I shall presently try to demonstrate. Ingarden's writings over two hundred items including twenty-seven large books belong primarily to three areas of philosophy: epistemology, ontology, and aesthetics including the theory of the work of art. This does not, however, comprise all of his work, as I shall show later. The first decade of Ingarden's philosophic work already included basic results which set the direction and paths of development of his thought.

I shall discuss the main core of Ingarden's philosophy in several sections, indicating the thought processes leading from one to another. Epistemology, being the least known chapter of his thought, and ontology, which dominates Ingarden's philosophy, will be discussed more extensively. Golaszewska, Maria. Grniak-Kocokowska, Krystyna. Gumpel, Liselotte. Haefliger, Gregor. Its aim is to give a clear and formally precise account, as well as a critical evaluation, of his contributions.

In the first chapter the basic principles of Ingarden's ontology are reformulated and, contrary to Ingarden, a nominalistic point of view is adopted. Chapters 2 to 4 give a reconstruction of the arguments for the following Ingardenian theses: 1 Existence is not a property; 2 The concept of existence is a principle sui generis of classification; 3 "exist s "is an equivocal word. On the basis of this critical doxography Chapters 5 and 6 provide a systematic examination of the Ingardenian position, by confronting it with the results of analytic philosophy such as early Husserl, Frege, Russell, Moore, Meinong, Bergmann, Hochberg, Castaneda.

The Ingardian Variant of an Old Thesis.

On the move (1924-1933)

This thesis was later refined in Ingarden , where a theory of the. Even today, however, his theory has not yet received widespread attention. This is so despite the originality and conceptual transparency of the programme he developed for his theory. And more importantly, his position contains novel viewpoints for an answer to the question of the equivocity of 'to be' - a question that has long been one of the fundamental questions of ontology. The aim of this paper is to elucidate Ingarden's answer to this "old" question.

To this end we must first acquaint ourselves with the fundamentals of his theory of the different ways or modes of existence. Then we shall consider the unique position that Ingarden's thesis of the equivocity of 'to be' occupies in the history of philosophy. Finally some suggestions towards a systematic evaluation of Ingarden's position will be made. Hanneborg, Knut. The work had then been published only in Polish, a fact which occasioned Bochenski to deplore the widespread habit of publishing professional philosophy in languages other than the main European ones.

Now Spr o istnienie swiata has become Der Streit um die Existenz der Welt, and the decisive language barrier has been broken. Other obstacles may remain: the pages do offer, even in non-Polish, a certain resistance. Not that the author has not done his share of the work, for he expresses himself with exemplary precision and by no means leaves the reader with the task of reducing confusion to clarity. But his perseverance in analysis and the wealth of rigorously differentiated concepts give us a complicated whole to survey.

It is the limited purpose of the present paper to give a short outline of this comprehensive system, and some hints of its place in a larger context. Heffernan, George. Hempolinski, Michal. Jadacki, Jacek. Johansson, Ingvar. International Journal for Ontology and Metaphysics no. Before that, in order to characterize the distinction between particulars and universals, Roman Ingarden's notions of "existential moments" and "modes ways of being" are presented; and a new pair of such existential moments is introduced: MultiplicityMonadicity.

Also, it is argued that there are not only real universals, but instances of universals tropes and fictional universals, too. Kalinowski, Georges. Kersten, Fred. Kocay, Victor. Sprimont: Pierre Mardaga. Kng, Guido. April , edited by Kuhn, Helmuth, Third revised edition. Laskey, Dallas. Majewska, Zofia. Makota, Janina. Translated from the Polish by the author with the assistance of E. But the bulk of them is contained in the chapter entitled "The problem of the form of pure consciousness" in the second volume of Controversy over the Existence of the World 1 and in the posthumous A Booklet on Man, 2 which is a collection of previously published articles, lectures, etc.

The most advanced considerations on this subject are contained in the essay On Responsibility. Its Ontic Foundations. This notion had been previously employed by Ingarden to explain various types of connections within the world as a whole. Ihre ontischen Fundamente, Stuttgart: Reclam Der Streit. I, Tubingen: Niemeyer , p. Mardas, Nancy. McCormick, Peter. Miskiewicz, Wioletta.

Mitscherling, Jeff. Roman Ingarden's Ontology and Aesthetics. Ottawa: University of Ottawa Press. Foreword by Raymond Klibansky. Mohanty, Jitendra Nath. Between Essentialism and Transcendental Philosophy, Whereas the members of the Munich and Gttingen schools simply abandoned the master as having deviated from the path of philosophy as a rigorous science, Ingarden continued his efforts to understand the motives and the arguments which led Husserl in that direction.

In this relentless effort, he seems to have gone a long way toward understanding, and even agreeing with, Husserl's transcendental-constitutive phenomenology, but he would nevertheless draw a line that he did not want to cross-thereby preserving his own realistic intuitions from being overtaken by what he took to be an idealistic philosophy.

While thus seeking to understand Husserl, Ingarden also undertook first his famous work Das Literarische Kunstwerk, and then the large, carefully argued work on the controversy regarding the existence of the world, Die Streit um die Existenz der Welt. One could say that Ingarden's central interest lay in the realism-idealism dispute, and it may also be safely said that no one in the history of philosophy has more carefully analyzed that issue than he.

While Das Literarische Kunstwerk is deservedly more famous, Ingarden undertook it as much out of his interest in the subject matter of art as out of the desire to advance the discussion of the realism-idealism issue. Motroshilova, N. Pltawski, Andrzej. Ein Metaphysiker Der Freiheit. Przybysz, Piotr. Reese, William. Riska, Augustin. Rosiak, Marek. The general approach assumed in the investigation is that of Roman Ingarden's The Controversy Over the Existence of the World where an object is the subject-of-properties.

The analysis of the form and the mode of existence of properties leads to the rejection of both negative and general properties. Each property is an individual qualitative moment of a particular object. Its form reveals existential heteronomy: the quality of the property is not immanent but refers to the object. The subject of properties has not its own qualitative content: its form is just the internal causality establishing the unity of an object. An object is not causally isolated from other objects, but external causation differs from internal either by being ramified in case of the composition and destruction of an object or reciprocal in case of interaction between coexisting objects.

Ruttkowski, Wolfgang. Mnchen: Grin Verlag. Essay I: Stratum, structure, and genre pp. Proceeding from this conviction we shall try here to establish a demarcation of these often used terms and at the same time prove their interdependence. Also in secondary literature there is no exact comparison of their systems to be found.

Die Aktualität der Antiquiertheit | Zeithistorische Forschungen

For that reason, the two strata systems are compared here for the first time and their respective advantages and deficiencies are being pointed out. Amongst other things. How, on the other hand. Ingarden's "Stratum of Depicted Objects" "Schicht der dargestellten Gegenstndlichkeiten" was more thoroughly subdivided by Hartmann. Why there cannot be found in Hartmann's system a corresponding stratum for Ingarden's ''Stratum of Schematized Aspects" "Schicht der schematischen Ansichten" - and 4.

Why Hartmann's two strata of the Treat Background" ''Irrealer Hintergrund" are consolidated by Ingarden and expressly not seen as a stratum. Ryle, Gilbert. Rynkiewicz, Kazimierz. Zwischen Realismus Und Idealismus. Ingardens berwindung Des Transzendentalen Idealismus Husserls. Frankfurt: Ontos Verlag.

Sancipriano, Mario. Schaeffer, Jean-Marie, and Potocki, Christophe, eds. Roman Ingarden: Ontologie, Esthtique, Fiction. Paris: Archives Contemporaines Editions. Schopper, Werner. Mnchen: Berchmanskolleg Verlag. Seifert, Joseph. Seifert, Joseph, and Smith, Barry. Roman Ingarden Zum Shusterman, Richard. Simons, Peter M. Selected essays - Dodrecht, Kluwer pp. Ontology, the science of being as being, was conceived in Plato's wrestling with the Eleatics' to on.

Its birth to Aristotle was not without complications for it seemed a single science should have a single genus as object, yet Aristotle denied that to on formed a genus. Given the role Aristotle gives to genera in definition, this is not surprising, but the outcome is that 'to be' is not said according to one genus, and hence has several meanings.

Can there then be a science of being as being? Aristotle's solution lay in the idea that all these meanings revolved around the central one of to be said of substances. However, not all philosophers shared Aristotle's denial of a single all-embracing class of objects.

Plotinus regarded 'ti', 'something', as denoting a highest genus. Bolzano, Brentano, Meinong and Husserl all used univocal term: like 'etwas' and 'Gegenstand' to mark such a class, while Quine has insisted that 'there are' is univocally rendered by the existential quantifier. Ingarden on the other hand follows Aristotle. The question of the univocity or multivocity of be is still one of the first questions of ontology. In this paper I use historical comparisons to point to where a solution to the problem may lie. Ingarden's account of the different ways or modes of being Seinsweisen, modi essendi is a most important philosophical contribution to the problem.

By chance marks not only the fifteenth anniversary of Ingarden's death but also the official th anniversary of the birth of the greatest of the late scholastics, William of Ockham, who is also celebrated here.

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My motive is however primarily systematic: I think be is indeed analogically ambiguous, though for different reasons than Aristotle or Ingarden. A Study in Ontology. Attention is focussed on literary works, which are said to have four strata, two belonging to language itself. I find Ingarden's stratified account of language correct in principle but defective in execution. In the ontology of literary works, the stratum of schematized aspects is particularly problematic, and I interpret these as complex meanings, correlated with another element of the work not given sufficient recognition by Ingarden: the Reader.

I suggest the terminology of strata for anworks in general is dispensable. Skolimowski, Henryk. Polish Analytical Philosophy. Smith, Barry. Amsterdam: Benjamins Press. Sodeika, Thomas. Spiegelberg, Herbert. Steinbach, Heribert. Kritische Betrachtungen Zu Ingardens Existentialontologie. Strzewski, Wladylasw. Swiderski, Edward. An examination of these entities provides, according to him, a knowledge of the corresponding individual essences of individual objects.

Although his starting point in this matter reproduces Husserl's original conceptions, what he found in Husserl's writings on the subject proved finally to be neither sufficient nor clear. For example, with respect to the problem of the existence and nature of Ideas, Ingarden wrote in the second volume of the Controversy over the Existence of the World: "Actually, what he gave us, his students, in this matter was solely the conviction that a rejection of the existence of Ideas-in some special manner-must lead to contradictions".

But what was certainly of value in Husserl, as far as the foundations of ontology were concerned, was his discussion in the Logical Investigations of the a priori, i. Accordingly, there are several related subjects to be considered. First, it should be seen how Ingarden conceives objects and their structures in general. This discussion will help clarify the problem whether Ingarden's theory of objects owes its content to the theory of ideal entities, or whether the reverse is true, that the theory of Ideas, etc. The possibility that they might be independent theories is excluded because Ideas, etc.

Second, it should be clarified whether, and if so in what sense, the structures of objects themselves reflect or indeed embody necessary connections of an ideal character. This calls for an analysis of the notions of "concretion" and "moment" and of their relation to ideal entities. Finally, after these discussions, it will be possible to deal with the central task of ontology according to Ingarden, namely with the analysis of Ideas as the proper field of investigations in ontology.

Findlay, London: Routledge and Kegan Paul I want to show that the distinction is problematic and that therefore the connection remains nebulous. The reason Ingarden gives for the distinction is that a philosopher needs to be clear about what in general, for example, a world is and what sorts of things can in general "furnish" the world before he can claim that the factual world, as apprehended in ordinary and scientific experience, is "really" thus and so. Now Ingarden had comparatively little to say about the connection of ontology to metaphysics.

However, speaking in his name it seems plausible to envisage a negative and a positive connection. On the negative side, as it cannot be merely assumed that ontology has some special purchase on the factual world, it may be that no, so to speak, "metaphysical commitment" to what is "really real" would be justifiable on ontological grounds. On the positive side, if metaphysical statements are grounded in the same evidence that sustains ontological statements, arid the latter do have purchase on the facts, then it follows that ontology has a prima facie metaphysical import to start with.

Swiecimski, Jerzy. Szczepanska, Anita. Translated from the Polish by the author with the assistance of G. Kung and E. The Polish version of this paper appeared in Studia Estetyczyne, Warsaw, vol. I want, instead, to do the following: 1 to examine the relationship between Ingarden's axiological investigations and his earlier inquiry into the general "anatomy" of works of art - literature, painting, music, etc.

Husserl's Logische Untersuchungen was Roman Ingarden's very first publication. At the time of its appearance, , Ingarden was still studying in Freiburg, working on his Ph. What could have prompted the youthful Ingarden to write such a review? The fact that the review was written in Polish suggests that Ingarden may simply have grasped an opportunity to arouse the Polish philosophical community's interest in a work that he regarded as monumental and, perhaps more generally, to stir its awareness of phenomenology as a movement.

It may be no accident that the review appears in a section of the journal entitled "Survey of Contemporary Systems". More compelling evidence for this occasional motive is the fact that Ingarden's first major publication was an extensive "introduction" to phenomenology. It was meant to remedy the deplorable state of almost total ignorance of phenomenology that Ingarden encountered on his return to Poland following the completion of his studies with Husserl.

Tarnowski, Karol. Thomasson, Amie L. Ingarden himself discusses cultural objects other than works of art directly in the first section of "The Architectural Work", where he develops a particularly penetrating view of the ontology of buildings, flags, and churches. This text provides the core insight into how his more lengthy studies of the ontology of works of art in The Literary Work of Art and the rest of The Ontology of the Work of Art, combined with the ontological distinctions of Der Streit um die Existenz der Welt, may be used to understand social and cultural objects.

The view that results, I will argue, is based in foreseeing problems with the reductivist and projectivist views that remain popular, and is capable of resolving central problems still thought to plague those who would offer a theory of cultural objects. Social and cultural objects such as money, churches, and flags present a puzzle since they seem, on the one hand, to be entities that clearly -- in some sense -- depend on minds, and yet, on the other hand, seem to be objective parts of our world, things of which we may acquire knowledge both in daily life and in the social sciences , and which we cannot merely modify at will.

But it is hard to see how any entity could exhibit both of those characteristics - if, on the one hand, we take their objectivity and mind-externality seriously, and consider them to be identifiable with physical objects, we find ourselves saddled with absurd conclusions about the conditions under which such entities would exist and persist, and neglect their symbolic and normative features. If, on the other hand, we treat them as mere creations of the mind, they seem either reduced to phantasms that could not have the recalcitrance and impact on our lives cultural objects apparently exhibit, or we seem to be positing 'magical' modes of creation whereby the mind can generate real, mind-external objects.

Ingarden, I will argue, foresees the problems with each of these alternatives and diagnoses of the root of the problem as lying in too narrow an understanding of the senses in which an entity may be mind-dependent, and too narrow a set of ontological categories for entities there may be. Once we can make evident the different senses in which something may be mind-dependent, and the different kinds of object there may be, we can find room for cultural objects considered as entities that are neither mere physical objects nor projections of the mind, but instead depend in complex ways on both foundations.

Such a moderate realist view, I will argue, can provide the means to overcome the problems thought to plague social ontology and show the way to a more comprehensive ontology. Tymieniecka, Anna-Teresa. Essence Et Existence. Paris: Aubier Montaigne. Urchs, Max.

Ingarden's Analysis Vs.

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Jaskwski Logic. Wachter, Daniel von. It takes Ingarden pages to set it up. His style is not cryptic, but he writes down not only how he thinks things are and his arguments for his views, but all his thoughts about the matter, in good phenomenological tradition.

Comparison of Velocity and Ultrasound Transit Time Spectroscopy in Cancellous Bone Phantom

The editors of this book have asked me to move on a bit more swiftly. As life is short, let us take a Europe-in-seven-days tour through Ingarden's ontology. Preparing the travel we need to clarify what ontology is for Ingarden, how it relates to semantics, and how it relates to metaphysics. Then we shall turn to different kinds of existential dependence and to the distinction between form and matter.

Having considered these preliminaries we shall consider Ingarden's conception of a substance and, more briefly, his other categories. While my main aim is to guide you through Ingarden's ontology I shall also indicate where I think the actual world is not as Ingarden describes it. Wallner, Ingrid. Wegrzecki, Adam.

Translated from the Polish by E. Above all, he attempted to determine what it is that we have in mind when we talk about this particular aspect of values. He also pointed out in a more or less decided way whether and how it is possible to ascribe "relativity" to a given type of values. He himself was reluctant to accept an axiological relativism, especially in its extreme form according to which all values would be relative in every possible way. He felt that such a radical view on values leads inevitably to subjectivism, to a denial of various axiological qualifications for various spheres of being.

Though he was indeed opposed to this view it was not only because of its theoretical and practical consequences, but above all because of the far-reaching simplifications it entailed, the superficiality of the argumentation as well as its disregard for the factual state of affairs accessible to the unprejudiced researcher of value-phenomena. Nevertheless, Ingarden's opposition to a radical axiological relativism does not mean that he spoke out for a radical axiological absolutism.

Such an inference would be too hasty since, as I shall try to show, it would impute to Ingarden a point of view which has no foundation in his investigations of values. In order to ascertain whether Ingarden's theory of values eventually does allow for some conception of an axiological absolutism, a closer analysis must be carried out of those of its assertions which directly or indirectly touch upon the absoluteness of values. In this regard Ingarden's significant methodological postulate must be kept in mind, namely that in axiological considerations the essential differences among types of values are not to be obscured.

This means, in the first place, that a mechanical transference of assertions that apply to one type of values to some other type or types is invalid; and, in. Hence to determine in what sense Ingarden would be willing to admit an axiological absolutism is not at all the same thing as resolving the question of what kind of absoluteness belongs, according to him, to the given types of values. Most of the remarks in Ingarden's axiology refer to ethical and aesthetic values which makes it possible to determine more exactly their "absoluteness-character" and, at the same time, to indicate which purely theoretical possibilities are "realized" in the case of these types of values.

It is possible to infer from certain of Ingarden's statements that he excludes certain forms of the absoluteness of values encountered in axiological thought. Thus he rejects the view which was once current that values are autonomous objects of a particular kind existing independently of everything and having in themselves the foundation of their continued existence.

According to this view, values are simply ideal objects. Ingarden rejects this form of a radically conceived absoluteness of values if only because he considers that a value is always a value of something, or in something, or for something. Moreover, it does not possess the form of an object, whether or not it exists ideally or otherwise, and it always requires the appropriate foundation for its existence.

This conviction applies to all values. Wolenski, Jan. On the other hand, it is highly probable that some elements of Ingardenian ontology may be helpful for modal logicians. In spite of the known Ingarden's very critical assesment of formal logic, there is a need for close cooperation between logicians and philosophers in Ingarden's style. I hope that my considerations justify such an opinion.

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Ingarden Biblio Uploaded by fanzefirl. Selected Bibliography. Flag for inappropriate content. Related titles. Husserl — Zeitbewusstsein und Zeitkonstitution. Jump to Page. Search inside document. Supplementary volume: Husserl Festschrift 6. Festschrift fr Hedwig Conrad-Martius Letters from Edmund Husserl edited by Roman Ingarden Lecture undelivered at the Congress because of the absence of the author 3. Proceedings of the Congress 6. Actes du X-ime Congrs des Socites de Philosophie de langue franaise Translated by Elisabeth Willman Translated by Maria Pelikan Letter to Professor Fizer on 'Schematism' Grabowicz Olson McCormick Translated by Adam Czerniawski Goldthwait Rudnick 3.

Third revised edition Documents Similar To Ingarden Biblio. Ali Mohsen. Aung Kyaw Moe. Gerd Ludwig. Herbert Rebus. Juan M. Oussama Ouamari. Edson Gil. Andrea Pinotti. Ikeda, Y. Edmund Husserl. Josivaldo Nascimento. Alexis Emanuel Gros. Ullrich Melle. More From fanzefirl. Cristina Mandoiu. Bo An. The foreskin of adults is typically retractable over the glans. Coverage of the glans in a flaccid and erect state varies depending on foreskin length.

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Six amino acids are non-essential dispensable in humans, meaning they can be synthesized in sufficient quantities in the body. These six are alanine, aspartic acid, asparagine, glutamic acid, serine[2], and selenocysteine considered the 21st amino acid. Pyrrolysine conside. In the book, Rosling suggests the vast majority of human beings are wrong about the state of the world. He shows that his test subjects think the world is poorer, less healthy, and more dangerous than it is.

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Roman Ingarden: Ontology and Metaphysics. Selected

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Eight episodes were produced for the first series which aired between 14 June and 2 August The second eight-episode series was broadcast in the UK between 30 October and 18 December A third series was commissioned in March and aired eight episodes between 17 May and 5 July In May , Channel 4 announced that the series had been cancelled. Emily Berri.

The episodes for the CBS television sitcom Cosby aired from September 16, to April 28, , with 96 total produced spanning four seasons. Hilton must watch Shelly the turtle. The International Journal of Sexual Health is a peer-reviewed academic journal that covers research on sexual health as a state of physical, emotional, mental, and social well-being. It is the official journal of the World Association for Sexual Health. The editor-in-chief is Eli Coleman University of Minnesota. Retrieved External links Official website. Sustainability is a monthly peer-reviewed, open access, scientific journal that is published by MDPI.

It was established in The journal explores the likelihood of cultural, environmental, economic and social sustainability for human beings. MDPI Publishing. Illustration from Tacuinum Sanitatis, a medieval handbook on wellness. In many traditions and statutes of civil or religious law, the consummation of a marriage, often called simply consummation, is the first or first officially credited act of sexual intercourse between two people, either following their marriage to each other or after a prolonged romantic attraction. The definition of consummation usually refers to penile-vaginal sexual penetration, but some religious doctrines hold that there is an additional requirement that there must not be any contraception used.

Thus in some legal. The periodic table, also known as the periodic table of elements, is a tabular display of the chemical elements, which are arranged by atomic number, electron configuration, and recurring chemical properties. The structure of the table shows periodic trends. The seven rows of the table, called periods, generally have metals on the left and non-metals on the right. The columns, called groups, contain elements with similar chemical behaviours. Six groups have accepted names as well as assigned numbers: for example, group 17 elements are the halogens; and group 18 are the noble gases.

Also displayed are four simple rectangular areas or blocks associated with the filling of different atomic orbitals. The organization of the periodic table can be used to derive relationships between the various element properties, and also to predict chemical properties and behaviours of undiscovered or newly synthesized elements. Russian chemist Dmitri Mendeleev published the first recognizable periodic table in , developed. The Greek physician Hippocrates — BC , the author of the oath. The Hippocratic Oath is an oath of ethics historically taken by physicians.

It is one of the most widely known of Greek medical texts. In its original form, it requires a new physician to swear, by a number of healing gods, to uphold specific ethical standards. The oath is the earliest expression of medical ethics in the Western world, establishing several principles of medical ethics which remain of paramount significance today. These include the principles of medical confidentiality and non-maleficence. As the seminal articulation of certain principles that continue to guide and inform medical practice, the ancient text is of more than historic and symbolic value.

Swearing a modified form of the oath remains a rite of passage for medical graduates in many countries. Hippocrates is often called the father of medicine in Western culture. Biology deals with the study of life and organisms. Biology recognizes the cell as the basic unit of life, genes as the basic unit of heredity, and evolution as the engine that propels the creation and extinction of species. Living organisms are open systems that survive by transforming energy and decreasing their local entropy[2] to maintain a stable and vital condition defined as homeostasis.

Humans is a science fiction television series that debuted on 14 June on Channel 4. Channel 4 announced in May that there would not be a fourth series. A Caucasoid female skull from the National Museum of Health and Medicine The Caucasian race also Caucasoid[1] or Europid [2] is a grouping of human beings historically regarded as a biological taxon, which, depending on which of the historical race classifications is used, has usually included some or all of the ancient and modern populations of Europe, Western Asia, Central Asia, South Asia, North Africa, and the Horn of Africa.

Commissioned by the Communist League and originally published in London in German as Manifest der Kommunistischen Partei just as the Revolutions of began to erupt, the Manifesto was later recognised as one of the world's most influential political documents. It presents an analytical approach to the class struggle historical and then-present and the conflicts of capitalism and the capitalist mode of production, rather than a prediction of communism's potential future forms. The Communist Manifesto summarises Marx and Engels' theories concerning the nature of society and politics, namely that in their own words "[t]he history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles".

It also briefly features their ideas for how the capitalist society of the time would eventually be replaced by socialism. Near the end of the Manifesto,. The obsolete German legal concept Kranzgeld literally "wreath money" is heart balm see breach of promise rewarded as compensation to a woman of "immaculate reputation" if a man broke off his engagement or caused it to be broken off e.